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Saturday, March 26, 2011

High-Voltage Regulator With Short Circuit Protection


There are many circuits for low voltage regulators. For higher voltages, such as supplies for valve circuits, the situation is different. That’s why we decided to design this simple regulator that can cope with these voltages. This circuit is obviously well suited for use in combination with the quad power supply for the hybrid amp, published elsewhere in this issue. The actual regulator consists of just three transistors. A fourth has been added for the current limiting function.
The circuit is a positive series regulator, using a pnp transistor (T2) to keep the voltage drop as low as possible. The operation of the circuit is very straightforward. When the output voltage drops, T4 pulls the emitter of T3 lower. This drives T2 harder, which causes the output voltage to rise again. R4 restricts the base current of T2. C1 and C2 have been added to improve the stability of the circuit.
These are connected in series so that the voltage across each capacitor at switch-on or during a short circuit doesn’t become too large. You should use capacitors rated for at least 100 V for C1-C3. D1 protects T2 against negative voltages that may occur when the input is short-circuited or when large capacitors are connected to the output. We use two zener diodes of 39 V connected in series for the reference voltage, giving 78 V to the base of T3.
Because R6 is equal to R7 the output voltage will be twice as large, which is about 155 V. T4 acts as a buffer for potential divider R6/R7, which means we can use higher values for these resistors and that the voltage is not affected by the base current of T2 (this current is about the same as the emitter current of T3). This is obviously not a temperature compensated circuit, but for this purpose it is good enough.
Author: Ton Giesberts – Copyright: Elektor Electronics

Missing pulse detector circuit using NE555

An NE555 timer IC connected as shown here can detect a missing pulse or abnormally long period between two consecutive pulses in a train of pulses,Such circuits can be used to detect the intermittent firing of the spark plug of an automobile or to monitor the heart beat of a sick patient.

The signal from the pick up transducer is shaped to form a negative going pulse and is applied to pin 2 of the IC which is connected as a mono stable.As long as the spacing between the pulse is less than the timing interval,the timing cycle is continuously reset by the input pulses and the capacitor is discharged via T1.A decrease in pulse frequency or a missing pulse permits completion of time interval which causes a change in the output level.

Monday, March 21, 2011

Radio Frequency (RF) Watt Meter

For RF (radio frequency) transmitter experiment, watt meter is useful for optimizing the transmitter circuit. A simple RF watt meter circuit is shown in the  schematic diagram below. Because circuit is not frequency sensitive, calibration is accurate on all HF bands. The sensitivity is affected by meter movement, number of turns in primary coil, and resistive voltage driver.
RF WATT METER circuit schematic
Pots can be adjusted for full-scale values from 1-14 W with values shown on the diagram. C1 and C2 are 3-20 pF. Diodes are 1N34A, 1N60, or equivalent. L1 is 46 turns No. 28 on Amidon T-50-2 toroid, with 2 turns No. 22 between ends of L1 for L2. Connect resistive dummy load to one coax receptacle and RF power source to other to adjust, with R2 at maximum resistance. We can provide highest meter reading and make that the FWD position with place the switch on the upper position. Switch to other position, which becomes REF, and for null reading, adjust C1. Reverse RF source and load, leaving switch at FWD, and adjust C2 for null. Now, we can calibrated the Wattmeter. [Circuit's schematic diagram source:]


Thursday, March 17, 2011

1 KW Power (Watt) Meter

This watt-meter circuit has measurement range up to 1-KW. This circuit can give the complete (X)(Y) function although uses only one transistor. Actually, this circuit is used for 117 Vac±50 Vac operation. For lower or lower voltage, this circuit can be modified easily. This circuit only measure power on negative cycles. The advantages of this circuit is this circuit does not need external power supply. This circuit measures true power that is delivered to the load. Here is the schematic diagram of the  circuit:
1 Kw Power Meter circuit schematic
At idle section, this circuit draw only 0.5W. This circuit has load current-sensing voltage of 10mV and load voltage loss of 0.01%. For linear loads, Rejection of reactive load currents is better than 100:1. When using a 50-μA meter movement, the nonlinearity of this circuit is about 1% full scale. Copper shunt can be used to give correct gain due to temperature. [Circuit's schematic diagram source:]


LM10 Battery Voltage Threshold Indicator

A battery threshold indicator circuit shown in the schematic diagram below has current regulation mechanism in driving the LED. A sufficient current should be satisfied at the minimum voltage but no excessive current when the voltage is at the highest level. Balance pin (5) is used as the reference  voltage for regulating the current. This pin generate 23 mV, which is internally temperature compensated.
Battery Threshold Indicator circuit schematic
When the voltage on the reference-feedback terminal (8) drops below 200 mV, the reference output (1) rises to supply the feedback voltage to the op amp through D2, so the LED current drops to zero. The minimum threshold voltage for these circuits is basically imited by the bias voltage for the LEDs. Typically, this is 1.7V for red, 2V for green and 2.5V for yellow. These two circuits can be made to operate satisfactorily for threshold voltages as low as 2V if a red diode is used. [National Semiconductor Application Note]
This battery voltage threshold indicator circuit  overcomes the difficulties caused by voltage change across the diode biasing resistor. [Circuit's schematic diagram source: National Semiconductor Application Note]