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Monday, December 20, 2010

DC/DC Converter From +1.5V To +34V

An interesting DC/DC converter IC is available from Linear Technology. The LT1615 step-up switching voltage regulator can generate an output voltage of up to +34V from a +1.2 to +15V supply, using only a few external components. The tiny 5-pin SOT23 package makes for very compact construction. This IC can for example be used to generate the high voltage needed for an LCD screen, the tuning voltage for a varicap diode and so on. The internal circuit diagram of the LT1615 is shown in Figure 1. It contains a monostable with a pulse time of 400 ns, which determines the off time of the transistor switch.If the voltage sampled at the feedback input drops below the reference threshold level of 1.23 V, the transistor switches on and the current in the coil starts to increase. This builds up energy in the magnetic field of the coil. When the current through the coil reaches 350 mA, the monostable is triggered and switches the transistor off for the following 400 ns. Since the energy stored in the coil must go somewhere, current continues to flow through the coil, but it decreases linearly. This current charges the output capacitor via the Schottky diode (SS24, 40V/2A). As long as the voltage at FB remains higher than 1.23V, nothing else happens.
As soon as it drops below this level, however, the whole cycle is repeated. The hysteresis at the FB input is 8mV. The output voltage can be calculated using the formula Vout = 1.23V (R1+R2) / R2 The value of R1 can be selected in the megohm range, since the current into the FB input is only a few tens of nano-amperes. When the supply voltage is switched on, or if the output is short-circuited, the IC enters the power-up mode. As long as the voltage at FB is less than 0.6V, the LT1615 output current is limited to 250mA instead of 350mA, and the monostable time is increased to 1.5µs.These measures reduce the power dissipation in the coil and diode while the output voltage is rising. In order to minimize the noise voltages produced when the coil is switched, the IC must be properly decoupled by capacitors at the input and output. The series resistance of these capacitors should be as low as possible, so that they can short noise voltages to earth. They should be located as close to the IC as possible, and connected directly to the earth plane. The area of the track at the switch output (SW) should be as small as possible. Connecting a 4.7-µF capacitor across the upper feedback capacitor helps to reduce the level of the output ripple voltage.

Switching Voltage Regulator



The Analog Devices ACP3610 is a voltage doubler that works with a switched-capacitor converter, using the push-pull principle. The switching frequency at the output is approximately 550 kHz. The term ‘push-pull’ refers to the two charge pumps, which work in parallel but in opposite directions in order to deliver the output voltage and current. Whenever one capacitor is supplying current to the output, the other one is being charged. This technique minimizes voltages losses and output ripple. The converter works with input voltages between 3 and 3.6 V. It provides an output voltage of around 6V at a maximum current of 320mA, if 2.2µF switched capacitors with low ESR (equivalent series resistance) are used.
A shut-down input is provided to allow the voltage doubler to be enabled or disabled by a logic-level signal. The IC is enclosed in a special package, which can dissipate up to 980mW at room temperature. The schematic diagram shows a typical application for the ADP3610. Here it works as a non-regulated voltage doubler. In theory, a voltage doubler can provide exactly twice the input voltage at its output, but in practice the combination of internal losses in the electronic switches and the internal resistances of the capacitors always causes the output voltage to be somewhat lower. The output voltage drops from a no-load value of 6 V to 5.4 V with a 320mA load, with a nearly linear characteristic.

A small capacitor is connected across the two supply pins at the input of the IC. It suppresses noise, brief voltage fluctuations, and current peaks when the ADP3610 switches. This capacitor (CIN) must have a low internal resistance (ESR). A larger capacitance value is necessary if long supply leads to the ADP3610 are present. The 1µF output capacitor (CO) is alternately charged by the two capacitors of the charge pump, CP1 and CP2. The internal resistance is an important factor here as well. It largely determines the amount that the voltage drops under load, and the amount of ripple in the output voltage. Ceramic or tantalum capacitors are recommended. The ESR can also be reduced by connecting several smaller-value capacitors in parallel. With small loads, the value of CO may be reduced.


http://www.extremecircuits.net/2010/08/switching-voltage-regulator.html

Variable Voltage Regulator using the L200




This is a circuit diagram of the circuit variable regulator, which uses IC L200, as regulator of voltage and current, IC For this comes from the company SGS-Thomson, which gives this series. This diagram circuit output voltage can be set, we can set the output voltage, with RV1. You can use this power supply circuit in various applications





Component :
R1=0.7 / Io max
R2=10 ohms
R3=1Kohm
R4=820 ohms
RV1=4.7Kohm pot.
C1=4700uF 63V
C2-3=100nF 100V
C4=47uF 63V
Q1=BDW51
Q2=BC108
IC1=L200

Voltage Regulator Using LM338



This circuit is a circuit diagram power supply. Circuit diagram works on voltage +13.8 V 5A with electric currents. This circuit controlled by the LM338 IC. Many times we need a supply of relatively strong in the framework we provide a variety of equipment with + 13.8V, as transceivers CB, cargo lead-acid batteries, and others known to use the circuit capable of providing complete in his exit, when This continuously operating 5A and 12A peak current. Not only need a few external components. Setting the voltage at + 13.8V to the trimmer TR1, (multiturn). The IC1 LM338 must in each case is placed on one suitable heatsink, which both supported by one fan. All the connections by the circuit become with big cross-section cable, because the current through from within their already high enough. The following is a schematic drawing:
Component :
R1=270R 1/4W 2%
TR1=4k7 (Multiturn)
C1=10000uF 40V
C2-3=100 nF 100V Polyester
C4-5=10uF 25V
D1-2=1N4002 (1A/100V)
B1=25A Bridge Rectifier
IC1=LM338
T1=220Vac/15VAC – 8A Mains Transformer
S1=2 Pole Single Throw Mains Switch
F1=250mA Fuse

http://freecircuitdiagram.net/voltage-regulator-using-lm338.html

Wednesday, December 8, 2010

2-25V 5A Power Supply Using LM338





This circuit is a circuit diagram power supply circuit uses a LM338 adjustable 3 terminal regulator to supply a current of up to 5A over a variable output voltage of 2V to 25V DC. It will come in handy to power up many electronic circuits when you are assembling or building any electronic devices. The schematic and parts list are designed for a power supply input of 240VAC. Change the ratings of the components if 110V AC power supply input is required. The mains input is applied to the circuit through fuse F1. The fuse will blow if a current greater than 8A is applied to the system. Varistor V1 is used to clamp down any surge of voltage from the mains to protect the components from breakdown. Transformer T1 is used to step down the incoming voltage to 24V AC where it is rectified by the four diodes D1, D2, D3 and D4. Electrolytic capacitor E1 is used to smoothen the ripple of the rectified DC voltage.
Diodes D5 and D6 are used as a protection devices to prevent capacitors E2 and E3 from discharging through low current points into the regulator. Capacitor C1 is used to bypass high frequency component from the circuit. Ensure that a large heat sink is mounted to LM338 to transfer the heat generated to the atmosphere.
2-25V Power Supply Parts List



http://freecircuitdiagram.net/2-25v-5a-power-supply-using-lm338.html

Regulated 12 Volt Supply





This circuit above uses a 13 volt zener diode, D2 which provides the voltage regulation. Aprroximately 0.7 Volts are dropped across the transistors b-e junction, leaving a higher current 12.3 Volt output supply. This circuit can supply loads of up to 500 mA.This circuit is also known as an amplified zener circuit.

Transformerless Power Supply





If you are not experienced in dealing with it, then leave this project alone.Although Mains equipment can itself consume a lot of current, the circuits we build to control it, usually only require a few milliamps. Yet the low voltage power supply is frequently the largest part of the construction and a sizeable portion of the cost.
This circuit will supply up to about 20ma at 12 volts. It uses capacitive reactance instead of resistance; and it doesn't generate very much heat.The circuit draws about 30ma AC. Always use a fuse and/or a fusible resistor to be on the safe side. The values given are only a guide. There should be more than enough power available for timers, light operated switches, temperature controllers etc, provided that you use an optical isolator as your circuit's output device. (E.g. MOC 3010/3020) If a relay is unavoidable, use one with a mains voltage coil and switch the coil using the optical isolator.C1 should be of the 'suppressor type'; made to be connected directly across the incoming Mains Supply. They are generally covered with the logos of several different Safety Standards Authorities. If you need more current, use a larger value capacitor; or put two in parallel; but be careful of what you are doing to the Watts. The low voltage 'AC' is supplied by ZD1 and ZD2.
The bridge rectifier can be any of the small 'Round', 'In-line', or 'DIL' types; or you could use four separate diodes. If you want to, you can replace R2 and ZD3 with a 78 Series regulator. The full sized ones will work; but if space is tight, there are some small 100ma versions available in TO 92 type cases. They look like a BC 547. It is also worth noting that many small circuits will work with an unregulated supply. You can, of course, alter any or all of the Zenner diodes in order to produce a different output voltage. As for the mains voltage, the suggestion regarding the 110v version is just that, a suggestion. I haven't built it, so be prepared to experiment a little.

I get a lot of emails asking if this power supply can be modified to provide currents of anything up to 50 amps. It cannot. The circuit was designed to provide a cheap compact power supply for Cmos logic circuits that require only a few milliamps. The logic circuits were then used to control mains equipment (fans, lights, heaters etc.) through an optically isolated triac. If more than 20mA is required it is possible to increase C1 to 0.68uF or 1uF and thus obtain a current of up to about 40mA. But 'suppressor type' capacitors are relatively big and more expensive than regular capacitors; and increasing the current means that higher wattage resistors and zener diodes are required. If you try to produce more than about 40mA the circuit will no longer be cheap and compact, and it simply makes more sense to use a transformer.

Dual Regulated Power Supply





In this circuit, the 7815 regulatates the positive supply, and the 7915 regulates the negative supply. The transformer should have a primary rating of 240/220 volts for europe, or 120 volts for North America. The centre tapped secondary coil should be rated about 18 volts at 1 amp or higher,allowing for losses in the regulator. An application for this type of circuit would be for a small regulated bench power supply.

12 Volt 30 amp Supply





The input transformer is likely to be the most expensive part of the entire project. As an alternative, a couple of 12 Volt car batteries could be used. The input voltage to the regulator must be at least several volts higher than the output voltage (12V) so that the regulator can maintain its output. If a transformer is used, then the rectifier diodes must be capable of passing a very high peak forward current, typically 100amps or more. The 7812 IC will only pass 1 amp or less of the output current, the remainder being supplied by the outboard pass transistors. As the circuit is designed to handle loads of up to 30 amps, then six TIP2955 are wired in parallel to meet this demand. The dissipation in each power transistor is one sixth of the total load, but adequate heat sinking is still required. Maximum load current will generate maximum dissipation, so a very large heat sink is required. In considering a heat sink, it may be a good idea to look for either a fan or water cooled heat sink. In the event that the power transistors should fail, then the regulator would have to supply full load current and would fail with catastrophic results. A 1 amp fuse in the regulators output prevents a safeguard. The 400mohm load is for test purposes only and should not be included in the final circuit.

Monday, December 6, 2010

9 Volt 2 Amp Power Supply






There is little to be said about this circuit. All the work is done by the regulator. The 78S09 can deliver up to 2 amps continuous output whilst maintaining a low noise and very well regulated supply.
The circuit will work without the extra components, but for reverse polarity protection a 1N5400 diode is provided at the input, extra smoothing being provided by C1. The output stage includes C2 for extra filtering, if powering a logic circuit than a 100nF capacitor is also desirable to remove any high frequency switching noise.

13 Volt Power Supply






Please operate caution when building this power supply. It is run on standard 117 ac current - and under the right circumstances 117 ac can kill you. Use a plastic enclosure if possible to decrease chances of short-circuiting. Don't use the power supply if it's wet, and never run it without the specified fuse.
U1LM7812 +12 VDC Voltage Regulator
BR14 amp bridge rectifier
T118 volt, 2 amp ac transformer
F12 amp slow-blow fuse
S1SPST toggle switch
R1330 ohm resistor
C13,000 uF electrolytic capacitor, 35 volt min.
C2100 uF electrolytic capacitor, 35 volt min.
LED1Light Emitting Diode
MISC.fuse holder, heat sink for U1, binding posts, ac cord with plug, chassis

Inverter 12V to 220V 300W by NE555,2N3055






This be inverter circuit the size about 300W .It performs to transform from battery 12V be house electric 220V 50Hz by have signal picture is Square wave. And it has the distinction that uses the equipment seek easy, such as integrated
circuit NE555 and 2N3055 transistors. request to have fun circuit this idea

Power inverter 12Vdc to 220Vac using Cmos 4047






This converter has a central component, the CMOS 4047, and converts a 12V DC voltage to 220V AC voltage. 4047 is utilised as a astable multivibrator. At pin 10 and 11 we find a rectangular symmetrically signal which is amplified by tow Darlington transistors T1 and T2 and finally reaches the secondary coil of a transformer network (2 x 10V/60VA). Primary coil terminals voltage is 220 alternative voltage. To obtain a better performance use a toroidal core transformer with reduced losses. With P1 the output frequency can be regulated between certain limits (50…400Hz).



http://apowersupply.com/converter-12v-dc-220v-ac-59.html

USB Power from Cigar Lighter Socket




The diagram shows the circuit of a versatile USB power socket that safely converts the 12V battery voltage into stable 5V. This circuit makes it possible to power/recharge any USB power-operated device, using in-dash board cigar lighter socket of your car.The DC supply available from the cigar lighter socket is fed to an adjustable, three-pin regulator LM317L (IC1). Capacitor C1 buffers any disorder in the input supply. Resistors R1 and R2 regulate the output of IC1 to steady 5V, which is available at the ‘A’ type female USB socket. Red LED1 indicates the output status and zener diode ZD1 acts as a protector against high voltage.
Assemble the circuit on a general-purpose PCB and enclose in a slim plastic cabinet along with the indicator and USB socket. While wiring the USB outlet, ensure correct polarity of the supply. For interconnection between the cigar plug pin and the device, use a long coil cord as shown in Fig. 2. Pin configuration of LM317L is shown in Fig. 3.

http://apowersupply.com

Wednesday, December 1, 2010

Short-Circuit Protection in DC Low-Voltage Systems





Here is a Short-Circuit Protection circuit to derive the additional power supply from the main circuit. The main circuit is protected from any damage due to short-circuit in the additional power supply circuit by cutting off the derived supply voltage.
The derived supply voltage restores automatically when shorting is removed. An LED is used to indicate whether short-circuit exists or not.In the main power supply circuit, 230V AC is stepped down by transformer X1 (230V AC primary to 0-9V, 300mA secondary), rectified by a fullwave rectifier comprising diodes D1 through D4, filtered by capacitor C1 and regulated by IC 7805 to give regulated 5V (O/P1). Transistors SK100 and BC547 are used to derive the secondary output of around 5V (O/P2) from the main 5V supply (O/P1).
Working of the ShortCircuit Protection circuit is simple. When the 5V DC output from regulator IC 7805 is available, transistor BC547 conducts through resistors R1 and R3 and LED1. As a result, transistor SK100 conducts and short-circuit protected 5V DC output appears across O/P2 terminals. The green LED (LED2) glows to indicate the same, while the red LED (LED1) remains off due to the presence of the same voltage at both of its ends.
When O/P2 terminals short, BC547 cuts off due to grounding of its base. As a result, SK100 is also cut-off. Thus during short-circuit, the green LED (LED2) turns off and the red LED (LED1) glows. Capacitors C2 and C3 across the main 5V output (O/P1) absorb the voltage fluctuations occurring due to short-circuit in O/P2, ensuring disturbance-free O/P1. The design of the circuit is based on the relationship given below:
RB = (HFE X Vs)/(1.3 X IL) where,
RB = Base resistances of transistors of SK100 and BC547
HFE = 200 for SK100 and 350 for BC547
Switching Voltage Vs = 5V
1.3 = Safety factor
IL = Collector-emitter current of transistors
Assemble the circuit on a general-purpose PCB and enclose in a suitable cabinet. Connect O/P1 and O/P2 terminals on the front panel of the cabinet. Also connect the mains power cord to feed 230V AC to the transformer. Connect LED1 and LED2 for visual indication.

http://apowersupply.com

3 to 24V Variable Power Supply




This 3 to 24 volt variable-regulated power supply can be adjusted from 3 to 25 volts and is current limited to 2 amps as shown, but may be increased to 3 amps or more by selecting a smaller current sense resistor (0.3 ohm). The 2N3055 and 2N3053 transistors should be mounted on suitable heat sinks and the current sense resistor should be rated at 3 watts or more.

Voltage regulation is controlled by 1/2 of a 1558 or 1458 op-amp. The 1458 may be substituted in the circuit below, but it is recommended the supply voltage to pin 8 be limited to 30 VDC, which can be accomplished by adding a 6.2 volt zener or 5.1 K resistor in series with pin 8. The maximum DC supply voltage for the 1458 and 1558 is 36 and 44 respectively. The power transformer should be capable of the desired current while maintaining an input voltage at least 4 volts higher than the desired output, but not exceeding the maximum supply voltage of the op-amp under minimal load conditions.

The power transformer shown is a center tapped 25.2 volt AC / 2 amp unit that will provide regulated outputs of 24 volts at 0.7 amps, 15 volts at 2 amps, or 6 volts at 3 amps. The 3 amp output is obtained using the center tap of the transformer with the switch in the 18 volt position. All components should be available at Radio Shack with the exception of the 1558 op-amp.

 http://apowersupply.com

Adjustable Voltage Regulator




This Adjustable Voltage Regulator is made by combining a common 78L05 with an integrated audio amplifier of the type TDA2030, an adjustable voltage regulator can be constructed in a very simple manner that works very well. The output voltage is adjustable up to 20 V, with a maximum current of 3 A. Since the TDA2030 comes complete with a good thermal and short-circuit protection circuit, this adjustable regulator is also very robust.
As illustrated by the schematic, the design of this circuit is characterized by simplicity that is hard to beat. In addition to the two ICs, the regulator contains actually only two potentiometers and a few capacitors.

The adjustment is done by first turning potentiometer P1 to maximum (wiper to the side of the 78L05) and subsequently turning trimpot P2 until the desired maximum output voltage is reached. P1 is then used to provide a continuously adjustable voltage between this maximum and nearly zero volts.

At relatively small output currents there are no specific requirements regarding the cooling. However, when the output current exceeds 1 A, or if the input to output voltage difference is quite large, the amplifier IC has to dissipate too much power and a small heatsink is certainly appropriate.

 http://apowersupply.com

Switch Mode Power Supply




This Switch Mode Power Supply circuit use the IC from National Semiconductor has been producing and designing ICs for use in switch-mode power supplies for many years. The application of these devices is normally straightforward, helped by the excellent documentation that is available. A typical example of a switch-mode power supply is that based on the LM2671 or LM2674.The components for it are available for outputs of 3.3 V, 5 V and 12 V. There is also a version providing a presettable output voltage. Within the specified application, the supplies can deliver currents of up to 500 mA. Note-worthy is the high switching frequency of 260 kHz.

This has the advantage that only low-value inductor and capacitors are needed, and this results in excellent efficiency and small dimensions. In normal circumstances, the efficiency is 90% and may even go up to 96%. Both ICs provide protection against current and temperature overloads.

The LM2671 has a number of additional facilities such as soft start and the option to work with an external clock. The latter enables several supplies to be synchronized so as to give better control of any EMC (ElectroMagnetic Compatibility). The application shown in the diagram provides an output voltage of 5 V and an output current of up to 500 mA. Diode D1 is a Schottky type ((Uco≥ 45 V and Imax≥ 3 A).


Homemade PCB



Printed circuit board or PCB is one of the important things to assemble an electronic circuit. It provides support to the components and makes electrical connection between the parts. In PCB assembling, the components are placed on one side of the Copper laminate passing their pins or leads to the other side through the holes. The pins/leads are then soldered to connect with the PCB tracks. Here explains the easiest method to make a homemade PCB for prototyping.To make the PCB, following materials are required


1. Copper clad board

This is available in different sizes. Select a suitable size to accommodate all the components. If the copper clad board is large in size, cut it to the required size using a Hacksaw blade. The copper clad board has a copper coated side which forms the soldering side. The other side is the component side on which the components are placed.If there is any dirt or copper oxide on the copper side, clean it throughly using a pencil eraser
Copper clad board


2. Ferric chloride solution

This is the Etching solution of Ferric chloride. It removes the unwanted copper layers from the copper clad board. The Etching solution can be prepared by dissolving 50 gms Ferric chloride powder in 100 ml Luke warm water.
3. PCB drill and bits
PCB drill is used to drill holes in the PCB. A hand drill with suitable bits is sufficient for the purpose. Use drill bits of the following size to make holes for different components
A. 1mm – for IC pins
B. 1.2mm – for Resistor, capacitor, transistor etc.
C. 1.5mm – for diode, LED pins, presets etc.
D. 5mm – for LED, nuts, screws etc.
E. 8mm – for switches, pots etc.
4. OHP Permanent Marker Pen, Tracing / Butter paper, Pencil Carbon paper, Varnish etc.
PCB Making
PCB making involves the following stages

1. Draw the circuit diagram as compact as possible on a paper. Mark the points (component pins) to be drilled. This diagram is used for Pattern drawing on the copper clad board.
2. Draw the same diagram in the tracing / butter paper using the OHP marker pen. Draw the diagram carefully without any overlapping or shorting of tracks or components. The neatness of the PCB lies in the Pattern drawing. After drawing, see the other side of the paper. There is a Mirror Sketch of the tracks. This is the actual pattern of the PCB.
Mirror Sketch of PCB tracks


3. Place the Pencil carbon on the copper side of the copper clad board. The ink side of the carbon paper should face the copper layer.
4. Place the tracing paper with diagram over the carbon paper. The diagram should be in the middle part of the copper clad board. Fold the sides of the tracing and carbon papers and stick it using cello tape. This prevents the movement while drawing.
5. Once again redraw the diagram using the OHP marker pen so that the carbon ink will create a mirror sketch on the copper clad board.
6. Remove the tracing paper and carbon paper. Using the OHP marker pen, redraw the carbon pattern of the mirror sketch on the copper laminate. So that the tracks will be created using the permanent marker ink. Keep it for 10 minutes to dry the ink.
7. Mark points to be drilled.
8. Take a Plastic or Porcelain tray and place the copper clad board with the track side facing upwards. Carefully pour the Ferric chloride solution over the copper clad till the copper clad immerse in the ferric chloride solution. Keep the tray in sunlight and shake occasionally. Etching will be completed in one to two hours.
Etched PCB

9. After etching, thoroughly clean the copper clad using tap water. This will remove the dissolved copper from the copper laminate except the copper beneath the OHP pen markings.
10. Drill holes using appropriate drill bits.
11. Remove the OHP pen markings using Petrol or Thinner so that the tracks will appear as copper lines.
12. If required, tin the tracks carefully using solder lead. Dip in varnish to prevent copper oxidation in tracks.
Tinned PCB

Commercial PCB
It is made using the following methods
1. Drawing the diagram in ORCAD or similar PCB drawing computer software. Diagrams include, Mirror sketch, Component values and symbols of components (Legend), diagram of pin holes.
PCB Design Software

2. Laser printing of the diagrams
3. Making Positive and Negative films of the diagrams
4. Screen printing of Mirror sketch and Legend on both sides of Copper clad board
5. Etching
6. Drilling of holes using machine drill
7. Tinning of holes in tinning machine
8. Masking using dyes
Commercial PCB- Legend and Track sides

Caution: Ferric chloride solution is toxic. It can cause skin burning or irritation. Use hand gloves during etching. Do not spill the ferric chloride on the skin. If this happens accidently, wash with water. Do not keep ferric chloride in places accessible to children.
D.Mohankumar

Monday, November 29, 2010

12 Volt 30 amp Supply






The input transformer is likely to be the most expensive part of the entire project. As an alternative, a couple of 12 Volt car batteries could be used. The input voltage to the regulator must be at least several volts higher than the output voltage (12V) so that the regulator can maintain its output. If a transformer is used, then the rectifier diodes must be capable of passing a very high peak forward current, typically 100amps or more. The 7812 IC will only pass 1 amp or less of the output current, the remainder being supplied by the outboard pass transistors. As the circuit is designed to handle loads of up to 30 amps, then six TIP2955 are wired in parallel to meet this demand. The dissipation in each power transistor is one sixth of the total load, but adequate heat sinking is still required. Maximum load current will generate maximum dissipation, so a very large heat sink is required. In considering a heat sink, it may be a good idea to look for either a fan or water cooled heat sink. In the event that the power transistors should fail, then the regulator would have to supply full load current and would fail with catastrophic results. A 1 amp fuse in the regulators output prevents a safeguard. The 400mohm load is for test purposes only and should not be included in the final circuit.

Dual Regulated Power Supply





In this circuit, the 7815 regulatates the positive supply, and the 7915 regulates the negative supply. The transformer should have a primary rating of 240/220 volts for europe, or 120 volts for North America. The centre tapped secondary coil should be rated about 18 volts at 1 amp or higher,allowing for losses in the regulator. An application for this type of circuit would be for a small regulated bench power supply.

Transformerless Power Supply






If you are not experienced in dealing with it, then leave this project alone.Although Mains equipment can itself consume a lot of current, the circuits we build to control it, usually only require a few milliamps. Yet the low voltage power supply is frequently the largest part of the construction and a sizeable portion of the cost.
This circuit will supply up to about 20ma at 12 volts. It uses capacitive reactance instead of resistance; and it doesn't generate very much heat.The circuit draws about 30ma AC. Always use a fuse and/or a fusible resistor to be on the safe side. The values given are only a guide. There should be more than enough power available for timers, light operated switches, temperature controllers etc, provided that you use an optical isolator as your circuit's output device. (E.g. MOC 3010/3020) If a relay is unavoidable, use one with a mains voltage coil and switch the coil using the optical isolator.C1 should be of the 'suppressor type'; made to be connected directly across the incoming Mains Supply. They are generally covered with the logos of several different Safety Standards Authorities. If you need more current, use a larger value capacitor; or put two in parallel; but be careful of what you are doing to the Watts. The low voltage 'AC' is supplied by ZD1 and ZD2.
The bridge rectifier can be any of the small 'Round', 'In-line', or 'DIL' types; or you could use four separate diodes. If you want to, you can replace R2 and ZD3 with a 78 Series regulator. The full sized ones will work; but if space is tight, there are some small 100ma versions available in TO 92 type cases. They look like a BC 547. It is also worth noting that many small circuits will work with an unregulated supply. You can, of course, alter any or all of the Zenner diodes in order to produce a different output voltage. As for the mains voltage, the suggestion regarding the 110v version is just that, a suggestion. I haven't built it, so be prepared to experiment a little.

I get a lot of emails asking if this power supply can be modified to provide currents of anything up to 50 amps. It cannot. The circuit was designed to provide a cheap compact power supply for Cmos logic circuits that require only a few milliamps. The logic circuits were then used to control mains equipment (fans, lights, heaters etc.) through an optically isolated triac. If more than 20mA is required it is possible to increase C1 to 0.68uF or 1uF and thus obtain a current of up to about 40mA. But 'suppressor type' capacitors are relatively big and more expensive than regular capacitors; and increasing the current means that higher wattage resistors and zener diodes are required. If you try to produce more than about 40mA the circuit will no longer be cheap and compact, and it simply makes more sense to use a transformer.

Regulated 12 Volt Supply






This circuit above uses a 13 volt zener diode, D2 which provides the voltage regulation. Aprroximately 0.7 Volts are dropped across the transistors b-e junction, leaving a higher current 12.3 Volt output supply. This circuit can supply loads of up to 500 mA.This circuit is also known as an amplified zener circuit.

Voltage Regulator Using LM338





This circuit is a circuit diagram power supply. Circuit diagram works on voltage +13.8 V 5A with electric currents. This circuit controlled by the LM338 IC. Many times we need a supply of relatively strong in the framework we provide a variety of equipment with + 13.8V, as transceivers CB, cargo lead-acid batteries, and others known to use the circuit capable of providing complete in his exit, when This continuously operating 5A and 12A peak current. Not only need a few external components. Setting the voltage at + 13.8V to the trimmer TR1, (multiturn). The IC1 LM338 must in each case is placed on one suitable heatsink, which both supported by one fan. All the connections by the circuit become with big cross-section cable, because the current through from within their already high enough. The following is a schematic drawing:
Component :
R1=270R 1/4W 2%
TR1=4k7 (Multiturn)
C1=10000uF 40V
C2-3=100 nF 100V Polyester
C4-5=10uF 25V
D1-2=1N4002 (1A/100V)
B1=25A Bridge Rectifier
IC1=LM338
T1=220Vac/15VAC – 8A Mains Transformer
S1=2 Pole Single Throw Mains Switch
F1=250mA Fuse

http://freecircuitdiagram.net/voltage-regulator-using-lm338.html

Variable Voltage Regulator using the L200






This is a circuit diagram of the circuit variable regulator, which uses IC L200, as regulator of voltage and current, IC For this comes from the company SGS-Thomson, which gives this series. This diagram circuit output voltage can be set, we can set the output voltage, with RV1. You can use this power supply circuit in various applications





Component :
R1=0.7 / Io max
R2=10 ohms
R3=1Kohm
R4=820 ohms
RV1=4.7Kohm pot.
C1=4700uF 63V
C2-3=100nF 100V
C4=47uF 63V
Q1=BDW51
Q2=BC108
IC1=L200

Sunday, November 28, 2010

Switching Voltage Regulator


The Analog Devices ACP3610 is a voltage doubler that works with a switched-capacitor converter, using the push-pull principle. The switching frequency at the output is approximately 550 kHz. The term ‘push-pull’ refers to the two charge pumps, which work in parallel but in opposite directions in order to deliver the output voltage and current. Whenever one capacitor is supplying current to the output, the other one is being charged. This technique minimizes voltages losses and output ripple. The converter works with input voltages between 3 and 3.6 V. It provides an output voltage of around 6V at a maximum current of 320mA, if 2.2µF switched capacitors with low ESR (equivalent series resistance) are used.
A shut-down input is provided to allow the voltage doubler to be enabled or disabled by a logic-level signal. The IC is enclosed in a special package, which can dissipate up to 980mW at room temperature. The schematic diagram shows a typical application for the ADP3610. Here it works as a non-regulated voltage doubler. In theory, a voltage doubler can provide exactly twice the input voltage at its output, but in practice the combination of internal losses in the electronic switches and the internal resistances of the capacitors always causes the output voltage to be somewhat lower. The output voltage drops from a no-load value of 6 V to 5.4 V with a 320mA load, with a nearly linear characteristic.

A small capacitor is connected across the two supply pins at the input of the IC. It suppresses noise, brief voltage fluctuations, and current peaks when the ADP3610 switches. This capacitor (CIN) must have a low internal resistance (ESR). A larger capacitance value is necessary if long supply leads to the ADP3610 are present. The 1µF output capacitor (CO) is alternately charged by the two capacitors of the charge pump, CP1 and CP2. The internal resistance is an important factor here as well. It largely determines the amount that the voltage drops under load, and the amount of ripple in the output voltage. Ceramic or tantalum capacitors are recommended. The ESR can also be reduced by connecting several smaller-value capacitors in parallel. With small loads, the value of CO may be reduced.


http://www.extremecircuits.net/2010/08/switching-voltage-regulator.html

DC/DC Converter From +1.5V To +34V


An interesting DC/DC converter IC is available from Linear Technology. The LT1615 step-up switching voltage regulator can generate an output voltage of up to +34V from a +1.2 to +15V supply, using only a few external components. The tiny 5-pin SOT23 package makes for very compact construction. This IC can for example be used to generate the high voltage needed for an LCD screen, the tuning voltage for a varicap diode and so on. The internal circuit diagram of the LT1615 is shown in Figure 1. It contains a monostable with a pulse time of 400 ns, which determines the off time of the transistor switch.If the voltage sampled at the feedback input drops below the reference threshold level of 1.23 V, the transistor switches on and the current in the coil starts to increase. This builds up energy in the magnetic field of the coil. When the current through the coil reaches 350 mA, the monostable is triggered and switches the transistor off for the following 400 ns. Since the energy stored in the coil must go somewhere, current continues to flow through the coil, but it decreases linearly. This current charges the output capacitor via the Schottky diode (SS24, 40V/2A). As long as the voltage at FB remains higher than 1.23V, nothing else happens.
As soon as it drops below this level, however, the whole cycle is repeated. The hysteresis at the FB input is 8mV. The output voltage can be calculated using the formula Vout = 1.23V (R1+R2) / R2 The value of R1 can be selected in the megohm range, since the current into the FB input is only a few tens of nano-amperes. When the supply voltage is switched on, or if the output is short-circuited, the IC enters the power-up mode. As long as the voltage at FB is less than 0.6V, the LT1615 output current is limited to 250mA instead of 350mA, and the monostable time is increased to 1.5µs.These measures reduce the power dissipation in the coil and diode while the output voltage is rising. In order to minimize the noise voltages produced when the coil is switched, the IC must be properly decoupled by capacitors at the input and output. The series resistance of these capacitors should be as low as possible, so that they can short noise voltages to earth. They should be located as close to the IC as possible, and connected directly to the earth plane. The area of the track at the switch output (SW) should be as small as possible. Connecting a 4.7-µF capacitor across the upper feedback capacitor helps to reduce the level of the output ripple voltage.

Low Power FM Transmitter

p90-f1

This article should satisfy those who might want to build a low power FM transmitter. It is designed to use an input from another sound source (such as a guitar or microphone), and transmits on the commercial FM band - it is actually quite powerful, so make sure that you don't use it to transmit anything sensitive - it could easily be picked up from several hundred metres away. The FM band is 88 to 108MHz, and although it is getting fairly crowded nearly everywhere, you should still be able to find a blank spot on the dial.
NOTE: A few people have had trouble with this circuit. The biggest problem is not knowing if it is even oscillating, since the frequency is outside the range of most simple oscilloscopes. See Project 74 for a simple RF probe that will (or should) tell you that you have a useful signal at the antenna. If so, then you know it oscillates, and just have to find out at what frequency. This may require the use of an RF frequency counter if you just cannot locate the FM band.
Description
The circuit of the transmitter is shown in Figure 1, and as you can see it is quite simple. The first stage is the oscillator, and is tuned with the variable capacitor. Select an unused frequency, and carefully adjust C3 until the background noise stops (you have to disable the FM receiver's mute circuit to hear this).
 
http://www.extremecircuits.net/2010/08/low-power-fm-transmitter.html

One Transistor Radio



 One_Transistor_Radio_Circuit_Diagramw
                                                              Here is a simple circuit for a one transistor Audion type radio powered by a 1.5 V battery. It employs a set of standard low-impedance headphones with the headphone socket wired so that the two sides are connected in series thus giving an impedance of 64 Ω. The supply to the circuit also passes through the headphones so that unplugging the headphones turns off the supply. Using an Audion configuration means that the single transistor performs both demodulation and amplification of the signal.The sensitivity of this receiver is such that a 2 m length of wire is all that is needed as an antenna. The tap on the antenna coil is at 1/5th of the total winding on the ferrite rod. For details of the antenna coil see the article Diode Radio for Low Impedance Headphones. This circuit is suitable for reception of all AM

 
http://www.extremecircuits.net/2010/07/one-transistor-radio.html

Wednesday, November 24, 2010

Sine Wave To TTL Converter

Sine_Wave_to__TTL_Converter_Circuit_Diagram

As the title implies, the present circuit is intended to convert sinusoidal input signals to TTL output signals. It can handle inputs of more than 100 mV and is suitable for use at frequencies up to about 80 MHz. Transistor T1, configured in a common-emitter circuit, is biased by voltage divider R3–R5 such that the potential across output resistor R1 is about half the supply voltage. When the circuit is driven by a signal whose amplitude is between 100 mV and TTL level (about 2 V r.m.s.), the circuit generates rectangular signals. The lowest frequencies that could be processed by the prototype were around 100 kHz at an input level of 100 mV, and about 10 kHz when the input signals were TTL level.Resistor R6 holds the input resistance at about 50 Ω, which is the normal value in measurement techniques. It ensures that the effects of long coaxial cables on the signal are negligible. If the converter is used in a circuit with ample limits, R6 may be omitted, whereupon the input resistance rises to 300 Ω.

http://www.extremecircuits.net/2010/06/sine-wave-to-ttl-converter.html

10,000x With One Transistor



For a collector follower with emitter resistor, you’ll often find that the gain per stage is no more than 10 to 50 times. The gain increases when the emitter resistor is omitted. Unfortunately, the distortion also increases. With a ubiquitous transistor such as the BC547B, the gain of the transistor is roughly equal to 40 times the collector current (Ic), provided the collector current is less than a few milliamps. Circuit diagram:

transistor booster circuit schematic

This value is in theory equal to the expression q/KT, where q is the charge of the electron, K is Boltzmann’s constant and T is the temperature in Kelvin.
For simplicity, and assuming room temperature, we round this value to 40. For a single stage amplifier circuit with grounded emitter it holds that the gain Uout /Uin (for AC voltage) is in theory equal to SRc. As we observed before, the slope S is about 40Ic. From this follows that the gain is approximately equal to 40I cRc. What does this mean? In the first instance this leads to a very practical rule of thumb: that gain of a grounded emitter circuit amounts to 40·I c·Rc, which is equal to 40 times the voltage across the collector resistor.If Ub is, for example, equal to 12 V and the collector is set to 5V, then we know, irrespective of the values of the resistors that the gain will be about 40R(12–5) = 280. Notable is the fact that in this way the gain can be very high in theory, by selecting a high power supply voltage. Such a voltage could be obtained from an isolating transformer from the mains. An isolating transformer can be made by connecting the secondaries of two transformers together, which results in a galvanically isolated mains voltage.That means, that with a mains voltage of 240 Veff there will be about 340 V DC after rectification and filtering. If in the amplifier circuit the power supply voltage is now 340 V and the collector voltage is 2 V, then the gain is in theory equal to 40 x (340–2). This is more than 13,500 times! However, there are a few drawbacks in practice. This is related to the output characteristic of the transistor. In practice, it turns out that the transistor does actually have an output resistor between collector and emitter.
This output resistance exists as a transistor parameter and is called ‘hoe’. In normal designs this parameter is of no consequence because it has no noticeable effect if the collector resistor is not large. When powering the amplifier from 340 V and setting the collector current to 1 mA, the collector resistor will have a value of 338 k. Whether the ‘hoe’-parameter has any influence depends in the type of transistor. We also note that with such high gains, the base-collector capacitance in particular will start to play a role.As a consequence the input frequency may not be too high. For a higher bandwidth we will have to use a transistor with small Cbc, such as a BF494 or perhaps even an SHF transistor such as a BFR91A. We will have to adjust the value of the base resistor to the new hfe. The author has carried out measurements with a BC547B at a power supply voltage of 30 V. A value of 2 V was chosen for the collector voltage. Measurements confirm the rule of thumb. The gain was more than 1,000 times and the effects of ‘hoe’ and the base-collector capacitance were not noticeable because of the now much smaller collector resistor.

 

http://www.extremecircuits.net/2010/05/10000x-with-one-transistor.html

High Current and Variable Voltage Regulator supply 0-25V at 25A

 



This entry was posted on Wednesday, October 8th, 2008 at 9:33 am and is filed under High Current supply, power supply. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. Responses are currently closed, but you can trackback from your own site.

You who like to build project power supply, May ever use the integrated circuit LM723 It can work in the circuit, there is integrated this circuit with can change voltage output get 0-25V with VR1 And control current get moderately tall about 25A by fine at VR2. For transistor at do infront enlarge the trend tallly go up. Arrive at 25A that ,he chooses to use 2N6776 numbers s have been canning wasp parallel then enhance to enlarge the trend tall very , and may more than 2N3055 numbers with. For other detail , see in original website better
 
 
http://www.seits.org/features/pwrsup.htm

Voltage Variable Power Supply 0-12V 0.7A max 2A



This entry was posted on Friday, July 11th, 2008 at 8:10 am and is filed under dc voltage regulator, dc voltage variable, power supply. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. Responses are currently closed, but you can trackback from your own site. In the experiment builds power supply regulator the that.

I will begin with the circuit is simple before. Which in this circuit use a little equipment. Have just zener diode perform regulator and the transistor number BD679 perform enlarge the current tallly go up. For VR1 - 5K values perform to fine the voltage of output. By initial from 0V go to topmost about 12V and pay the Current has usual about 0.7A topmost about 2A depend on transformer with.The detail is other see take get from circuit picture follow Link the this


http://www.talkingelectronics.com/te_interactive_index.html

Tuesday, November 23, 2010

dc-power-supply-6v-using-lm317



It uses integrated number circuit LM317T be important equipment. It can have the trend comes out about 1A by is character circuit DC voltage regulated. And have the circuit protects good. We can fix output voltage get from R1,R2. The diode D3-D4 (1N4002) use protect voltage flow turn back be bad with IC get. The Capacitors in the circuit helps Filter voltage smoothly and completed most. The transformer should choose 1A -2A size for current well sir.

 

http://www.circuitpowersupply.com/circuitblog/dc-power-supply-6v-using-lm317/

10A Variable Regulator power supply with LM350



This entry was posted on Wednesday, October 1st, 2008 at 8:08 am and is filed under High Current supply, dc voltage variable. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. Responses are currently closed, but you can trackback from your own site.

 

This be Variable Regulator power supply Circuit. That be High Current Source 10amp. By use the integrated circuit LM350. Which usual it controls Voltage output get 1.2V to 25V and give current about 3Amp. But when bring parallel 3 pcs. Can give current output be 10Amp max for this circuit. It can adjustable voltage output get 4.5V to 25V at 10Amp. Other detail please see in the website Link.

 

http://www.circuitpowersupply.com/circuitblog/10a-variable-regulator-power-supply-with-lm350/

DC Power supply adjust voltage regulator 1.5 Volt - 15Volt 3Amp



I wants DC Power supply adjust voltage regulator 1.5 Volt - 15Volt, and give current about 3 Amp for in the work experiences all electronics. As seek many the circuit , meet that this circuit easily , use integrated number circuit LM1084 for control voltage model regulator adjustable voltage 1.5V - 15V. With fining decorates VR1. And should feedInput AC 18V 3A low like besides should hold let off the heat gives the integrated circuit LM1084 with. For the detail , see in the circuit.



 
http://www.circuitpowersupply.com/circuitblog/dc-power-supply-adjust-voltage-regulator-15-volt-15volt-3amp/

Friday, November 19, 2010

1.5V to 5V DC Converter using LT1073



This is DC to DC Converter circuit. , It will change from DC Volt 1.5V boost up to 5V DC. It convenients for to are usable with digital circuit that use low current 100mA only. When see the detail in the circuit ,It the integrated circuit number LT1073 be main part. Then the circuit that build easy , good cheap. If you take an interest to try build this circuit can read the detail enhances from



 
http://www.linear.com or Will buy integrated number this circuit comes to try build see all right.

12V to 28V DC Converter By LM2585



Will do ? good! The exit is good. Be build DC to DC converter be 12VDC to 28VDC converter. By I uses the integrated circuit number LM2585 be pillar equipment for this work. Not difficult tell a lot of invite you see in circuit picture better.
12V to 28V DC Converter By LM2585

 

http://www.circuitpowersupply.com/circuitblog/12v-to-28v-dc-converter-by-lm2585/

3V to 5V Dc converter by LT1073



If you have a place turns on the power 3V sizes, but want DC Voltage Regulator how are 5V. We sizes will make good. I has the exit, as a result build 3V to 5V Dc converter circuit. Which be not story difficult anything. if you use IC LT1073 of http://www.linear.com can count that be IC that good. You are supposed to keep to use very much. For Current output. as a result be valuable about 100mA enough be usable general get. When see the equipment adds that use. The a little there is important equipment be Diode D1 number 1N5818 and L1 = 68μH value. This circuit then for digital circuit. The small-sized request have fun it.
3V to 5V Dc converter by LT1073




http://www.circuitpowersupply.com/circuitblog/3v-to-5v-dc-converter-by-lt1073/

Wednesday, November 17, 2010

Power Filter Regulated for car by LM1084



When you lead to play MP3 or laptop computer come to apply to an automobile. Sometimes may born noise problem has from electricity automobile system. I thinks Power Filter Regulated for car by LM1084-12 may help solve a problem this get.

Power Filter Regulated for car  by LM1084

Because of using way LC filter and IC LM1084-12 (5A Low Dropout Positive Regulators) as a result can help regulate voltage well. If there is exceed noise 12V more although a little just will change this circuit has a little. And this circuit still can give the trend tall arrives at 5A can apply to the equipment cover very. The detail is other see from circuit picture and original website

 

 

http://linuxcar.sone.jp/reg.en.html