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Friday, October 1, 2010

Voltage to Frequency Converter Circuit

 This voltage to frequency converter circuit has an oscillator that is voltage controlled and has a small, 0.5% deviation. IC1 function as a multivibrator and produces rectangular impulses with equal width.

The width of the impulses depend on R4, P1 and C1. With P1 we can do fine adjustments of the output frequency.
The output frequency can be easily adjusted with the help of U1 voltage. D3 diode is required because we want to eliminate R4 and P1 influence. D1 and D2 diodes produce a small flow of temperature. With P2 we adjust the offset voltage. Because of its high quality, this voltage-frequency converter (VCO) can be used in a large field of applications.

Temperature to Voltage Converter

 With this simple temperature to voltage converter circuit we can do a precise measurement of the temperature in a room. A NTC resistor or a thermistor is used as a sensor that has a strong temperature dependence.
If the NTC temperature rises then the output voltage rises with 0.5 V per 10C.Conversion factor depends on the type of thermistor resistance used. If you want to read the temperature directly on an universal measurement device then the value of R9 must be choosed so that the desired sensitivity is achieved (R8 must be equal with R9).
The power supply voltage level is not critical; D1 zener voltage can be between 4.7 V and 8.2 V. The current consumption is about 12 mA.

Adjustable Timer 1-10 minute

The Adjustable Timer circuit starts timing when switched on. The green LED lights to show that timing is in progress. When the time period is over the green LED turns off, the red LED turns on and the bleeper sounds.
The time period is set by adjusting the variable resistor. It can be adjusted from 1 to 10 minutes (approximately) with the parts shown in the diagram. 

You can mark the times on a scale drawn on the box.Please note that the range of time periods is only approximate. With perfect components the maximum time period should be 4½ minutes, but this is typically extended to about 10 minutes because the 220µF timing capacitor slowly leaks charge. This is a problem with all electrolytic capacitors, but some leak more than others. In addition the actual value of electrolytic capacitors can vary by as much as ±30% of their rated value.

Line Following Robot Sensor


This Line Following Robot sensor or surface scanner for robots is a very simple, stamp-sized, short range (5-10mm) Infrared proximity detector wired around a standard reflective opto-sensor CNY70(IC1). In some disciplines, a line following robot or an electronic toy vehicle go along a predrawn black line on a white surface. In such devices, a surface scanner, pointed at the surface is used to align the right track.IC1 contains an infrared LED and a phototransistor. The LED emit invisible infrared light on the track and the phototransistor works as a receiver.

 Usually, black colored surface reflects less light than white surface and more current will flow through the phototransistor when it is above a white surface. When a reflection is detected (IR light falls on the phototransistor) a current flows through R2 to ground which generates a voltage drop at the base of T1 to make it conduct. As a result, transistor T2 start conducting and the visual indicator LED(D1) lights up. Capacitor C2 works as a mini buffer.After construction and installation, the scanner needs to be calibrated. Initially set P1 to its mechanical centre position and place the robot above the white portion of the track. Now slowly turn P1 to get a good response from D1. After this, fine tune P1 to reduce false detection caused by external light sources. Also ensure that the LED remains in off condition when the sensor module is on the blackarea. Repeat the process until the correct calibration is achieved.
The red color LED (D1) is only a visual indicator. You can add a suitable (5V) reed relay in parallel with D1-R4 wiring after suitable alterations to brake/stop/redirect the robot. Similarly, the High to low (H-L) transition at the collector of T2 can be used as a signal to control the logic blocks of the robot. Resistor R1 determines the operating current of the IRLED inside IC1. The sensing ability largely depends on the reflective properties of the markings on the track and the strength of the light output from IC1.