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Saturday, October 9, 2010

Electronic Motor Starter

This motor starter protects single-phase motors against voltage fluctuations and overloading. Its salient feature is a soft on/off electronic switch for easy operation. The transformer steps down the AC voltage from 230V to 15V. Diodes D1 and D2 rectify the AC voltage to DC. The unregulated power supply is given to the protection circuit. In the protection circuit, transistor T1 is used to protect the motor from over-voltage. The over-voltage setting is done using preset VR1 such that T1 conducts when voltages goes beyond upper limit (say, 260V). When T1 conducts, it switches off T2. Transistor T2 works as the under-voltage protector. The under-voltage setting is done with the help of preset VR2 such that T2 stops conducting when voltage is below lower limit (say, 180V). Zener diodes ZD1 and ZD2 provide base bias to transistors T1 and T2, respectively. Transistors T3 and T4 are connected back to back to form an SCR configuration, which behaves as an ‘on’/‘off’ control.Switch S1 is used to turn on the pump, while switch S2 is used to turn off the pump. While making over-/under-voltage setting, disconnect C2 temporarily. Capacitor C2 prevents relay chattering due to rapid voltage fluctuations. Regulator IC 7809 gives the 9V regulated supply to soft switch as well as the relay after filtering by capacitor C4. A suitable miniature circuit breaker is used for automatic over-current protection. Green LED (LED1) indicates that the motor is ‘on’ and red LED (LED2) indicates that the power is ‘on’. The motor is connected to the normally-open contact of the relay. When the relay energizes, the motor turns on.

Heat Sensitive Switch

At the heart of this heat-sensitive switch is IC LM35 (IC1), which is a linear temperature sensor and linear temperature-to-voltage converter circuit. The converter provides accurately linear and directly proportional output signal in millivolts over the temperature range of 0°C to 155°C. It develops an output voltage of 10 mV per degree centigrade change in the ambient temperature. Therefore the output voltage varies from 0mV at 0°C to 1V at 100°C and any voltage measurement circuit connected across the output pins can read the temperature directly. The input and ground pins of this heat-to-voltage converter IC are connected across the regulated power supply rails and decoupled by R1 and C1. Its temperature-tracking output is applied to the non-inverting input (pin 3) of the comparator built around IC2. The inverting input (pin 2) of IC2 is connected across the positive supply rails via a voltage divider network formed by potentiometer VR1.

Since the wiper of potentiometer VR1 is connected to the inverting input of IC2, the voltage presented to this pin is linearly variable. This voltage is used as the reference level for the comparator against the output supplied by IC1. So if the non-inverting input of IC2 receives a voltage lower than the set level, its output goes low (approximately 650 mV). This low level is applied to the input of the load-relay driver comprising npn transistors T1 and T2. The low level presented at the base of transistor T1 keeps it nonconductive. Since T2 receives the forward bias voltage via the emitter of T1, it is also kept non-conductive. Hence, relay RL1 is in de-energised state, keeping mains supply to the load ‘off’ as long as the temperature at the sensor is low. Conversely, if the non-inverting input receives a voltage higher than the set level, its output goes high (approximately 2200mV) and the load is turned ‘on.’ This happens when IC1 is at a higher temperature and its output voltage is also higher than the set level at the inverting input of IC2.
So the load is turned on as soon as the ambient temperature rises above the set level. Capacitor C3 at this pin helps iron out any ripple that passes through the positive supply rail to avoid errors in the circuit operation. By adjusting potentiometer VR1 and thereby varying the reference voltage level at the inverting input pin of IC1, the temperature threshold at which energisation of the relay is required can be set. As this setting is linear, the knob of potentiometer VR1 can be provided with a linear dial calibrated in degrees centigrade. Therefore any temperature level can be selected and constantly monitored for external actions like turning on a room heater in winter or a room cooler in summer. The circuit can also be used to activate emergency fire extinguishers, if positioned at the probable fire accident site. The circuit can be modified to operate any electrical appliance. In that case, relay RL1 must be a heavy-duty type with appropriately rated contacts to match the power demands of the load to be operated.

Remote-Controlled Fan Regulator

Using this circuit, you can change the speed of the fan from your couch or bed. Infrared receiver module TSOP1738 is used to receive the infrared signal transmitted by remote control. The circuit is powered by regulated 9V. The AC mains is stepped down by transformer X1 to deliver a secondary output of 12V-0-12V. The transformer output is rectified by full-wave rectifier comprising diodes D1 and D2, filtered by capacitor C9 and regulated by 7809 regulator to provide 9V regulated output. Any button on the remote can be used for controlling the speed of the fan. Pulses from the IR receiver module are applied as a trigger signal to timer NE555 (IC1) via LED1 and resistor R4. IC1 is wired as a monostable multivibrator to delay the clock given to decade counter-cum-driver IC CD4017 (IC2).Out of the ten outputs of decade counter IC2 (Q0 through Q9), only five (Q0 through Q4) are used to control the fan. Q5 output is not used, while Q6 output is used to reset the counter. Another NE555 timer (IC3) is also wired as a monostable multivibrator. Combination of one of the resistors R5 through R9 and capacitor C5 controls the pulse width. The output from IC CD4017 (IC2) is applied to resistors R5 through R9. If Q0 is high capacitor C5 is charged through resistor R5, if Q1 is high capacitor C5 is charged through resistor R6, and so on. Optocoupler MCT2E (IC5) is wired as a zero-crossing detector that supplies trigger pulses to monostable multivibrator IC3 during zero crossing. Opto-isolator MOC3021 (IC4) drives triac BT136.
Resistor R13 (47-ohm) and capacitor C7 (0.01µF) combination is used as snubber network for triac1 (BT136). As the width of the pulse decreases, firing angle of the triac increases and speed of the fan also increases. Thus the speed of the fan increases when we press any button on the remote control. Assemble the circuit on a general-purpose PCB and house it in a small case such that the infrared sensor can easily receive the signal from the remote transmitter.

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